Feedback — Week 3 Quiz

Question 1

Voter registration can help…

(Check all that apply.)

Your Answer Score Explanation
prevent chain voting Correct 0.33 Voters can still participate in chain voting with registration
prevent ineligible people from voting Correct 0.33 Nonresidents, people who are underage, and others who are not lawfully allowed to vote can be excluded from the registration lists before the election
prevent voters from voting multiple times Correct 0.33 Voters’ names can be «crossed off» the list after they vote
Total 1.00 / 1.00

Question 2

What are some advantages of requiring voters to provide a photo identification (drivers license, passport) in order to vote?

(Check all that apply.)

Your Answer Score Explanation
Helps protect ballot secrecy Correct 0.25 Voter ID doesn’t affect how ballots are kept secret in an election
Helps to thwart chain voting attacks Incorrect 0.00 Chain voting can still be committed, since ballot IDs are not tied to voter IDs
There are no advantages to voter ID Correct 0.25
Helps to reduce voter fraud, such as voting under a false name Correct 0.25 While not impossible to defeat, requiring a photo ID makes it more difficult for voters to vote under different identities
Total 0.75 / 1.00

Question 3

What are some disadvantages of requiring voters to provide photo identification in order to vote?

(Check all that apply.)

Your Answer Score Explanation
Reduces ballot secrecy Incorrect 0.00 The (claimed) identity of a voter without voter ID is kept no more or less secret than an identity verified by a photo ID
Voters’ personal information might be used for advertising Incorrect 0.00 This is a potential risk with voter registration databases, but the risk is the same (at least for honest voters) whether or not the voter’s ID is checked at the polling place
There are no disadvantages to voter ID Correct 0.25
Could disenfranchise certain demographics of voters more than others Incorrect 0.00 For example, in the U.S., over 25% of voting-age African-Americans do not have eligible identification under voter ID laws, compared to 18% of seniors and an even smaller fraction of the general population.
Total 0.25 / 1.00

Question 4

Suppose you are an election worker. After the election is over, you check the tamper-evident seal on a voting machine and notice that it is different than the serial number that was recorded before the election.

Which of the following could explain the change? (Check all that apply.)

Your Answer Score Explanation
A poll worker wrote down the original serial number incorrectly Correct 0.25 Human error is a possible explanation
An attacker has replaced the seal without otherwise tampering with the machine Correct 0.25 The attacker could have done this to create confusion or distrust in election results
The seal was accidentally broken and nobody noticed Incorrect 0.00 Merely breaking the seal wouldn’t cause its serial number to change.
An attacker has tampered with the machine Correct 0.25 The attacker broke the original seal, tampered with the machine, and replaced the seal with a fresh one with a different serial number. Seals have serial numbers to try to catch this sort of attack.
Total 0.75 / 1.00

Question 5

Parallel testing is…

(Check all that apply.)

Your Answer Score Explanation
a useful safeguard against malfunctioning machines Correct 0.25 Although parallel testing cannot catch all forms of attack or malfunction, it can still detect many simple problems.
performed on election day by poll workers Incorrect 0.00
able to catch any vote-stealing software on the machine Correct 0.25 There are clever ways that an attacker could program a voting machine to behave correctly under a test yet fraudulently in a real election.
used to verify the integrity of voting machines by voting for a known outcome and verifying the machines’ output Correct 0.25
Total 0.75 / 1.00

Question 6

What is booth capture?
Your Answer Score Explanation
When a polling official takes a voting machine out of the election in order to run parallel tests on it to verify its integrity Incorrect 0.00
Total 0.00 / 1.00

Question 7

A voter registration form might allow voters to draw a map of where they live (instead of providing an address) because…
Your Answer Score Explanation
it will prevent junk mail from being sent to them Incorrect 0.00
Total 0.00 / 1.00

Question 8

The DRE voting machines used in India have which of the following features?

(Check all that apply.)

Your Answer Score Explanation
Touch screen displays Correct 0.25 The EVMs use a paper list of candidates and a series of switches, not a touch screen.
Assistance for illiterate voters Correct 0.25 India’s EVMs show party symbols that help illiterate voters select their preferred candidate.
Removable memory cards Incorrect 0.00 India’s EVMs do not have any removable storage.
Tamper-evident seals Correct 0.25 India’s EVMs use seals to try to defend against physical tampering at various phases of the election process.
Total 0.75 / 1.00

Question 9

Which of the following changes would help secure India’s EVMs against all the kinds of tampering attacks suggested by the research team?

(Check all that apply)

Your Answer Score Explanation
Check voter ID at the polling place Incorrect 0.00 Checking an ID would not stop an attacker from tampering with the hardware or software of the voting machine
Add a voter-verifiable paper trail to the machines Correct 0.25 While not a perfect solution, a VVPAT (if appropriately designed and routinely audited) would make it harder for an attacker to change the results by tampering with machines’ hardware or software
Modify the machines to store another electronic copy of the votes (e.g. on both an external flash card and internal memory) Incorrect 0.00 This adds complexity to the machine without necessarily increasing security. Malicious software burned into the processor chip at the factory could still modify all copies.
Encrypt the votes. Incorrect 0.00 Properly encrypting the votes could make «Clippy»-style attacks more difficult, but it would not prevent dishonest display attacks, and it would not thwart vote-stealing software burned into the processor chip at the factory.
Total 0.25 / 1.00

Question 10

Why is it difficult to design an electronic voting machine that can be used in every democracy around the world?

(Check all that apply.)

Your Answer Score Explanation
No country would accept a machine designed or built by a foreign company Correct 0.25 Actually, this is the case in several of the countries we’ve discussed: Brazil used machines built by U.S.-owned Diebold; the programming for India’s machines is burned into the chips at foreign factories.
Election styles, rules, and constraints vary considerably from country to country Correct 0.25 This turns out to be a significant obstacle, since the style of voting can significantly affect the design of a machine. For instance, U.S. elections tend to have many ballot questions, so DREs must either support multiple ballot pages or be very large. In India, where there tends to be only one race, these features are unnecessary, and constraints on cost and the need for portability make them undesirable.
The machines would have to support ballot in every country’s languages Incorrect 0.00 Actually, this isn’t much of an obstacle. Touch screen machines can customize the displayed ballot for a wide range of languages, and other systems involve a paper ballot or candidate list that can be printed locally.
The security requirements vary from country to country Correct 0.25 Although most democracies require high integrity and some kind of ballot secrecy, the details can vary quite a bit. For example, India faces a historic problem with booth capture, Brazil has a constitutional guarantee of ballot secrecy, and Germany requires that the counting mechanism is understandable to non-experts.
Total 0.75 / 1.00

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